According to the results of new research by the VoxCheck project, in 2022-2023, Polish media spread most of the fakes. Hungary ranked second in terms of the number of fakes, with 869 cases, and the Czech Republic ranked third with 787 cases. In Germany and Slovakia, 709 and 592 cases of disinformation were found, respectively. The least amount of propaganda messages was found in Italian media, accounting for only 10% of all detected false claims.
Russian propaganda continuously appeared in European media, constantly adding new cases. At the same time, according to VoxCheck, the peak of Russian fakes was in December and January. In January, they recorded the largest number of fakes: 148.
The most popular narratives
As part of the monitoring, 325 fakes and 27 disinformation narratives were singled out. Russia spread the most fakes in the European media within the following narratives:
- The actions of Ukraine and the West forced Russia to start a war — 633 cases
- Nazism in Ukraine — 616 cases
- The West controls Ukraine and uses it for its own purposes — 559 cases